Simple Adjustable Staircase Waveform Generator
Staircase signals find many applications in the field of electronics, such as in television systems, telemetry, and analogue and digital communications. Here is a circuit illustrating the basic principles of staircase waveform generator.
Mini Offline UPS
Here is a circuit of an offline UPS, which a hobbyist can make at a reasonable cost. The capacity of the UPS is 350VA, so it can be used for any equipment with a load below 350VA. The UPS can be upgraded to 1kVA by making just a few changes.
Letterbox with Letter-Counting Facility
Here is a circuit that starts counting when you insert a letter in the letterbox at your home or office. It is designed to save your time from going to the letterbox to check if there are letters inside. The number of letters present in the box is indicated by a seven-segment display.
Low-Cost 6-Bit DAC
For controlling the load of appliances such as cooling fans, low-wattage heaters, thermostats, low-wattage light sources, small electrical toys and test benches for loudspeakers, we need a power source whose voltage can be controlled in small steps and is capable of providing current of more than 1A. For that, we require low-resolution digital-to-analogue converters (DACs) with three to seven bits.Here is the circuit capable of setting output voltage between 1.25V and 15V in 64 steps.
GSM-based Dot-matrix Display
Presented here is a GSM-based, eight-digit dot matrix display that can show an eight-digit message sent via any mobile phone, from any place around the world, to the mobile number of the SIM in the GSM module of the display. Size of the display is 7×40, which is made using 5×7 dot-matrix LED modules.
Sensitive LPG Leakage Alarm
Here is an ultra-sensitive LPG sensor that generates loud beeps when it senses any gas leakage. It detects vapours of liquefied petroleum gas anywhere between 200 and 10,000 ppm and drives a piezobuzzer to catch attention for immediate action. The buzzer beeps until the concentration of gas in the air decreases to a safe level.
Mini Rechargeable Power Supply
Presented here is a robust, compact and hand-held power supply that delivers 9.2V and 5V up to 1A (approx.) and 3.3V up to 500mA. It also includes a female A-type USB connector so you can power and charge other equipment such as mobile phones. Four white LEDs are included to enable its use as a torch-light as well.
Simple 12V, 1A SMPS
This is the circuit of a simple 12V, 1A SMPS. It is is built around a low-power offline switcher TNY266 (IC1), photo-transistor photo-coupler EL817 (IC2), a flyback transformer (X1) and some other easily-available components.
Electronic Door Lock
Home burglary incidents are on the rise. Homes without proper security measures in place are particularly more vulnerable. But, it is easy to avoid home break-ins by using a simple solution like the electronic door lock presented here. With this circuit installed, the entry door of your house can be unlocked only by entering a pre-decided password, which helps to prevent unauthorised unlocking.
Here is a simple circuit using different colour LEDs that makes your clock glow in different colours of rainbow.
Buffer and Driver for Square-Wave Signals
Here we describe a buffer and driver circuit for square-wave signals. The circuit has a high output driving capability and high slew rate of the output signals. It can provide TTL- and CMOS-compatible signals.
Speed Controller for Small Cooling Fans
Small cooling fans are used in some equipment for cooling semiconductor devices. The circuit given here is of a simple automatic speed controller for a 12V, 0.6W (or 1.2W) cooling fan that increases the fan's speed when temperature rises, and vice versa.
Battery-Discharge Measurement Circuit
Battery-life measurement for a portable system is a time-consuming task and many methods used for it do not give reliable results. Presented here is a circuit using which you can measure the battery-life very easily. Here, an analogue clock tracks the discharge time of the battery used in battery-powered portable devices.
Door-Knock or Vibration Alarm
This is a simple circuit that activates an alarm when there is a knock on the door or there are any vibrations due to movement of heavy goods or furniture. The circuit uses readily available components.
Automatic Evening Lamp
Presented here is a solution for switching off outdoor lamps even when you are not at home. The lamp turns on in the evening and turns off in the morning so that there is no need for manually switching it on/off.
Difference Counter for In and Out Gates
Sometimes, we need to know whether someone is still inside a building before it is locked. And if so, how many persons are still inside? There can be many other similar situations for which the circuit presented here can come handy.
Efficient 5V Relay Driver
This design idea outlines a method to use an analogue switch and discrete components to reduce the power dissipated in relay actuation. We introduced a power-saving relay-driver circuit for a 12V relay in May issue. Presented here is an MAX4624-based circuit to drive a 5V relay in a more efficient way.
Versatile Audio-Visual Alarm
This circuit uses an NE555 timer IC, some LEDs, a couple of piezo buzzers and a few other components to produce audio-visual effects as per your requirement. The timer NE555 and its equivalents are widely used for all sorts of audio and visual indications, such as door alarms.
Brushless DC Motor Driver
Use of brushless DC motors (BLDCs) is on the rise. But their control usually requires rotor-position information for selecting the appropriate commutation angle. Normally, a Hall Effect sensor is used to sense rotor position. But in cost-sensitive applications, a sensor-less commutation scheme is often desirable. The circuit described here uses a DRV10866 driver IC to drive a small BLDC fan, without using any position sensors.
Alcohol Level Tester
A lot of accidents happen every day due to drunk driving. This is a very useful circuit for testing whether a driver is drunk or not. The circuit is easy to use, inexpensive and indicates various levels of alcohol consumption through LEDs.