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Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is one of the oldest and widely used techniques of controlling electrical motors. To control the speed of the motor, the average value of the PWM pulse is controlled by a switch. If the switch is...
Here’s a automatic water pump controller circuit that controls the water pump motor. The motor gets automatically switched on when water in the overhead tank (OHT) falls below the lower limit. Similarly, it gets switched off when the tank...
Generally, solar panels are stationary and do not follow the movement of the sun. Here is a solar tracker system that tracks the sun’s movement across the sky and tries to maintain the solar panel perpendicular to the sun’s...
The circuit for an LPG leakage detector is readily available in the market, but it is extremely expensive and usually based on a microcontroller (MCU). Presented here is a low-cost circuit for an LPG detector that you can build...
Here is a simple DC motor speed controller circuit that can be configured to control the sweep rate of automobiles’ windscreen wiper. The circuit comprises a timer NE555 (IC1), medium-power driver transistor BD239 (T1), high-power switching transistor BD249 (T2) and...
This alarm plays your prerecorded voice message. It is built around the readily available quartz clock. Take the buzzer out of the quartz clock and connect its positive terminal to pin 1 and negative terminal to pin 2 of...
AC switches are silicon devices that control AC loads directly connected to the AC mains. This means that the driving reference terminal of the AC switch can be connected to the Line potential. This circuit explains the need for...
Op-amps require dual-polarity supply for proper operation. When working with battery supply, it becomes difficult to get dual power supply for the op-amps. Presented here is a simple circuit that provides ±5V from a 9V battery. Circuit and working The...
An inverter turned into an emergency power system, which turns on when the mains supply fails, and more importantly doesn’t turn on when the main supply is available. Can you give me a setup (emergency lighting system) where few of...
When recording sound from several orchestral instruments being played by different musicians using a single microphone, the only way to adjust the sound balance is to change the position of the musicians relative to the microphone. When recording direct...