Motion control plays a vital role in industrial automation. Manufacturing plants in industries like chemical, pharmaceutical, plastic and textile, all require motion control. And it may be a flat-belt application, flow control application or mixing of substances. Different types of motors—AC, DC, servo or stepper—are used depending upon the application. Of these, DC motors are widely used because controlling a DC motor is somewhat easier than other kinds of motors.Using the DC drive you can program the motion of the motor, i.e., how it should rotate.

Here are some of the features of this DC motor controller:

  1. Controlled through microcontroller AT89C51
  2. Message displayed on the LCD module
  3. Start, stop and change of direction of the motor controlled by push button switches and indicated by LED.
  4. Changes the running mode of the motor to continuous, reversible or jogging.
  5. Changes the speed of the motor
  6. Time settings are possible for forward and reverse running of the motor

Circuit description

Fig.1 shows the circuit of the microcontroller-based DC motor controller. At the heart of the DC motor controller is microcontroller AT89C51. Port pins P0.0 through P0.7 of the microcontroller are interfaced with data pins D0 through D7 of the LCD module, respectively. Port pins P3.0, P3.1 and P3.2 control the LCD operation through enable (E), register select (RS) and read/write (R/W) pins, respectively. Contrast of the LCD is set by preset VR1. Port pins P1.0 through P1.7 are connected to switches S1 through S8 for performing the various operations.

Fig.1: Circuit of the microcontroller-based DC motor controller

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Power-on reset signal for the microcontroller is generated by the combination of capacitor C1 and resistor R1. Switch S9 provides manual reset to the microcontroller. A 12MHz crystal provides the basic clock frequency to the microcontroller. Capacitors C2 and C3 provide stability to the oscillator. EA pin (pin 31) of the microcontroller is connected to 5V to enable internal access. Port pins P2.0 through P2.3 of the microcontroller are used for LED indication of run, stop, clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation. Port pins P2.4 through P2.6 are connected to the inputs of inverters N3, N2 and N1 of 74LS04 (IC2). The output of inverter N3 is used to trigger pin 2 of NE555 timer.

Timer NE555 is configured as a monostable and its time period is decided by preset VR2 and capacitor C4. When pin 2 of NE555 goes low, output pin 3 becomes high for the predetermined period.

The output of NE555 is connected to pole P of relay RL1. Normally-open (N/O) contacts of relay RL1 are connected to N/O1 and N/C2 contacts of relay RL2. N/C1 and N/O2 contacts of RL2 are connected to ground. The outputs of inverters N2 and N1 drive relays RL1 and RL2 with the help of transistors T1 and T2, respectively. D1 and D2 act as free-wheeling diodes. Poles P1 and P2 of RL2 are connected to IN1 and IN2 pins of motor driver L293D. OUT1 and OUT2 of L293D drive motor M.

Fig.2: Circuit of the power supply
Fig.2: Circuit of the power supply

Fig.2 shows the power supply circuit. The 230V AC mains is stepped down by transformer X1 to deliver the secondary output of 9V, 500 mA. The transformer output is rectified by a full-wave bridge rectifier comprising diodes D3 through D6, filtered by capacitor C6 and then regulated by ICs 7805 (IC5) and 7806 (IC6). Capacitors C7 and C8 bypass the ripples present in the regulated 5V and 6V power supplies. LED5 acts as a power-‘on’ indicator and resistor R10 limits the current through LED5.

Fig.3: Proposed panel arrangement for the DC motor controller

The proposed panel arrangement for the microcontroller-based DC motor controller is shown in Fig.3.

An actual-size, single-side PCB for the microcontroller-based DC motor controller and component layout can be download from link below.

Operation

The eight push button switches are connected for eight different functions as shown in the table.

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