Auto Power Switching Mains, Solar Inverter or Generator

by Aman Sinha, Gaurav Tiwari, Jil Patel, Shivani Shah with Prof. Geetali Saha

12948
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This project is based on the AEIOU heuristic framework of Design Engineering Approach.

Design for Performance, Safety and Reliability is ensured in terms of switching module.

Design for Ergonomics and Aesthetics is ensured in terms of Priority set by the user regarding availability of Power Source.

Design for Manufacturability and Assembly is ensured in terms of Generator, Inverter and Solar Plates. Also, based upon choice and availability, different circuits using Eagle can be worked upon.

Design for Cost and Environment is addressed when costing incurred for Power Generation using Non-reneweable source can be restricted and option for clean environment is assured by Solar Source, which is a renewable source of energy

This system can be further interfaced with presently existing Mains Supply.

Cost of the Project: ₹ 1493/-

Component Name Component Value Quantity
Resistors
R5 330E 1
R1,R2,R3,R4,R10 10K 5
JP1 10K SIP 1
R6,R7,R8,R9 1K 4
R11 10K PRESET 1
Capacitors
C4 470uF/16V 1
C3,C5 10uF/16V 2
C1,C2 33pF Ceramic 2
Integrated Circuits
IC3 7805 1
IC1 AT89S52 1
IC2 ULN2003 1
Miscellaneous
Q1 CRYSTAL 11.0592MHz 1
DIS1 16X2 LCD 1
LED1-LED5 LED-RED 5
k1-k4 12V REALY 4
SW1 2-PIN PUSH BUTTON 1
S1,S2,S3,S4 TOGGLE SWITCH 4
JP3-JP7 TWO-PIN PCB TIRMINAL BLOCK 5
J1 DC POWER JACK 1
BAT1-BAT4 9V BATTERY 4
ADP1 12V ADPTER 1

 

Step-down transformer/12 Volt Adapter

We used an Adapter that is a step down transformer coupled with a rectifier circuit. It provides 12 V DC at the other end.

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

Here we used 16×2 Character LCD Displays

Size: 84mm x 44mm x 12.1mm

Character Count by Lines: 16×2

Color: Dark on Yellow-Green

Type: Character LCD

ULN2003 Relay Driver

The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays. It consists of seven NPN Darlington pairs that feature high-voltage outputs with common-cathode Clamp diode for switching inductive loads. The collector-current rating of a single Darlington pair is 500mA. The Darlington pairs may be paralleled for higher current capability. Applications include relay drivers, hammer drivers, lamp drivers, display drivers (LED gas discharge), line drivers, and logic buffers.

The ULN2003 has a 2.7kW series base resistor for each Darlington pair for operation directly with TTL or 5V CMOS devices.

Features of the Driver

1) Seven Darlington per package
2) Output currents500mA per driver(600mA peak)
3) Integrated suppression diodes for inductive loads
4) Outputs can be usedin parallel for high currents.
5) TTL/CMOS/PMOS/DTL compatible inputs.
6) Inputs pinned opposite to outputs
7) Simplified layout

Relays

Relays are electromechanical devices or solid-state devices, which operate in response to a signal, which may be voltage, current, temperature etc. Electromagnetic relays operate due to magnetic fields. They are composed of two parts: (1) The operating coil and (2) The magnetic switch. When an input pulse is introduced into the coil, a magnetic field is produced in the core of the electromagnet. This action causes the switch to slide. Relays are either normally open or normally close. Relays are available for DC or AC excitation and coil voltages range from 5V to 230V.

Voltage Regulator 7805

Output Current up to 1A.

Output Voltages of 5V.

Thermal Overload Protection.

Short Circuit Protection.

Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection

Microcontroller AT89S52

The AT89S52 is a low power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using ATMEL’s high-density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out.

The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the ATMEL AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller, which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry.

In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning.

The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.

Features

1) Compatible with MCS-51 Products
2) 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
3) Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
4) 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
5) Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
6) Three-level Program Memory Lock
7) 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
8) 32 Programmable I/O Lines
9) Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
10) Eight Interrupt Sources
11) Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
12) Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

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